Schizophrenia stuff. 

I don't believe in the concept of 'schizophrenia', but I am using the term as a kind of shorthand to refer to a body of research literature and clinical practice within which the term is bandied about. The idea of schizophrenia itself has been the subject of a number of convincing critiques, especially by Mary Boyle (1990) in 'Schizophrenia: A scientific delusion' and by Theodore Sarbin (1990) in the Brown Library (also listed below). 

The list below contains a few newspaper articles and a small number of academic pieces concerning the idea of 'schizophrenia' and I have tried especially to include material which emphasises the social, cognitive and any other aspects which have been addressed from a social-psychological point of view  

As usual, the inclusion of the material in here does not necessarily mean I believe in it. A good deal of the material, for example seems to take the concept of schizophrenia for granted. However, I am developing this part of the site as a resource containing material that offers some insight into those aspects of the syndrome and its treatment that are not obsessively locked into the medical model.. 

On a practical note, a number of these files are in *.pdf format. They may take a while to download, especially if you are browsing from a  rural area. Please do not be alarmed if your computer appears to have died for a few minutes. Obviously, if it does nothing for hours on end you may wish to reload, reconnect, reboot or reset as appropriate. You'll also need the Adobe Acrobat .pdf viewer, which you can download if you haven't got it already.

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Addington, J. & Manusco, E. (2009) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Individuals at High Risk of Developing Psychosis, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, (8): 879--890


Badgaiyan, R.D. (2009) Theory of mind and schizophrenia, Consciousness and Cognition, 18: 320–322.


Bentall, R.P. & Swarbrick, R. (2003) The best laid schemas of paranoid patients: Autonomy, sociotropy and need for closure, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 76: 163–171


Bergstein, M., Weizman, A., & Solomon, Z. (2008) Sense of coherence among delusional patients: prediction of remission and risk of relapse, Comprehensive Psychiatry 49: 288–296.


Birchwood, M. & Trower, P. (2006) The future of cognitive^behavioural therapy for psychosis: not a quasi-neuroleptic, British Journal of Psychiatry, 188 , 107-108.


Bobes. J., Ciudad, A., Álvarez, E., Sa, L., Polavieja, P. Gilaberte, I.(2009) Recovery from schizophrenia: Results from a 1-year follow-up observational study of patients in symptomatic remission, Schizophrenia Research, 115: 58–66


Bradshaw, W. (1998) Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Case Study, Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Journal, 12, (1) 13-25.


Buck, K.D. & Lysaker, P.H. (2009) Addressing Metacognitive Capacity in the Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia: A Case Study, Clinical Case Studies, 8, (6): 463–472


Burbach, F.R. and Stanbridge, R.I. (1998) A family intervention in psychosis service integrating the systemic and family management approaches Journal of Family Therapy, 20, 311-325.


Carden, J. & Jones, A. (2009) Collecting subjective and rating scale data within a single case study design: cognitive behavioural therapy for a person experiencing psychosis, Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 16: 848–856.


Carter, D.J. (2011) Case Study: A Structural Model for Schizophrenia and Family Collaboration, Clinical Case Studies, 10, (2): 147–158.


Chadwick, P. & Birchwood, M. (1996) Cognitive therapy for voices, In Haddock, G & Slade, P.D. (Eds) Cognitive Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, London: Routledge, ps. 71-85.


Chadwick, P. and Birchwood, M. (1994) The omnipotence of voices: A cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations, British Journal of Psychiatry, 164: 190-201.


Crow, T.J. (2008) The emperors of the schizophrenia polygene have no clothes, Psychological Medicine, 38: 1681–1685.


Fisher, D.B. (2003) People are more important than pills in recovery from mental disorder, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 43, (2): 65-68.


Fowler, D., Hodgekins, J., Painter, M., Reilly, T., Crane, C., Macmillan, I., Mugford, M., Croudace, T.  and Jones, P.B. (2009) Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: a report from the ISREP MRC Trial Platform study (Improving Social Recovery in Early Psychosis), Psychological Medicine, 39: 1627–1636.


Freeman, D. & Garety, P. (2000) Comments on the content of persecutory delusions: Does the definition need clarification?, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 407-414.


Freeman, D., Pugh, K.& Garety, P. (2008) Jumping to conclusions and paranoid ideation in the general population, Schizophrenia Research, 102: 254–260.


Garety, P.A., Fowler, D.G., Freeman, D., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G. & Kuipers, E. (2008) Cognitive–behavioural therapy and family intervention for relapse prevention and symptom reduction in psychosis: randomised controlled trial, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192: 412–423.


Garety, P.A. & Freeman, D. (1999) Cognitive approaches to delusions: A critical review of theories and evidence, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 113-154.


Grotstein, J.S. (1996) Orphans of the 'Real: I. Some Modern and Postmodern Perspectives on the Neurobiological and Psychosocial Dimensions of Psychosis and Other Primitive Mental Disorders, In Allen, J.G. & Collins, D.T. (Eds.) Contemporary Treatment of Psychosis: Healing Relationships in the Decade of the Brain, New Jersey, Jason Aronson, ps.1-25.


Haddock, G., Lewis, S., Bentall, R., Dunn, G., Drake, R & Tarrier, N. (2006) Influence of age on outcome of psychological treatments in first episode psychosis, British Journal of Psychiatry, 188: 250-254.


Halperin, S., Nathan, P., Drummond, P. & Castle, P. (2000) A cognitive behavioural group based intervention for social anxiety in schizophrenia, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 809-813.


Henderson, M. (2001) Genome for the people: Corporate feudalism is hampering research says an eminent geneticist, The Times, 22/10/2001.


Hooley, J.M. (2010) Social Factors in Schizophrenia, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19 (4): 238-242


Jackson, C., Trower, P., Reid, I., Smith, J., Hall, M., Townend, M., Barton, K., Jones, J., Ross, K., Russell, R., Newton, E., Dunn, G. & Birchwood, M. (2009) Improving psychological adjustment following a first episode of psychosis: A randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy to reduce post psychotic trauma symptoms, Behaviour Research and Therapy 47: 454–462.


Jackson, H., McGorry, P., Henry, L., Edwards, J., Hulbert, C., Harrington, S., Dudgeon, P., Francey, S., Maude, D., Cocks, J. & Power, P. (2001) Cognitively oriented psychotherapy for early psychosis (COPE): A one year follow up, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 57-70.


Jacobs, D.H. (1995) Psychiatric drugging: Forty years of pseudo-science, self interest and indifference to harm, Journal of Mind and Behaviour, 16, (4), 421-470.


James, A. (2000) Society: Spying on the psychiatrists: Profile: Insider who has challenged the treatment of mental illness, The Guardian, 20/9/2000.


Karon, B.P. (2001) The Fear of Understanding Schizophrenia and Iatrogenic Myths, Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 31, (1): 15-20.


Keen, T.M. (1999) Schizophrenia: Orthodoxies and heresies: A review of alternative possibilities, Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 4, 415-424.


Kobayashi, T. & Kato, S. (2000) Hallucination of soliloquy: Speaking component and hearing component of auditory hallucinations, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 54, 531-536.


Kuipers, E., Garety, P., Fowler, D., Dunn, G. Bebbington, P., Freeman, D. & Hadley, C. (1997) London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis, British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 319-327.


Kuipers, E. (2008) Pathways to psychological treatments for psychosis, Psychiatry,7, (11): 447-450.


Kurihara, T., Kato, M., Reverger, R. & Tirta, G.R. (2011) Remission in schizophrenia: A community-based 6-year follow-up study in Bali, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 65: 476–482.


Kurtz, M.M. & Mueser, K.T. (2008) A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Research on Social Skills Training for Schizophrenia, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76: 491-504.


Kurtz, .M., Seltzer, J.C., Fujimoto, M., Shagan, D.S. & Wexler, B.E. (2009) Predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after cognitive remediation, Schizophrenia Research, 107: 267–274.


Lee, D.A., Randall, F.,  Beattie, G. and Bentall, R.P. (2004) Delusional discourse: An investigation comparing the spontaneous causal attributions of paranoid and non-paranoid individuals, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (2004), 77, 525–540


Lysaker, P.H. & Lysaker, J.T. (2006) Psychotherapy and schizophrenia: An analysis of the requirements of an individual psychotherapy for persons with profoundly disorganised selves, Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 19: 171–189,


Margison, F. (2005) Integrating approaches to psychotherapy in psychosis, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39: 972–981.


McGlashan, T.H. (2006) At Issue: Is Natural Selection Rendering Schizophrenia Less Severe? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, (3): 428–429.


Medalia, A. & Choi, J. (2009) Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia, Neuropsychological Review, 19: 353–364


McCann, E. (2001) Recent developments in psycho-social interventions for people with psychosis, Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 22, 99–107.


Martin, J.A. (2001) Brief report: Social cognition and subclinical paranoid ideation British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 261–265.


Millham, A. & Easton, S. (1998) Prevalence of auditory hallucinations in nurses in mental health,  Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5, 95–99.


Moncrieff, J., Cohen, D. & Mason, J.P. (2009) The subjective experience of taking antipsychotic medication: a content analysis of Internet data, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 120: 102–111.


Moore, A., Sellwood, W. & Stirling, J. (2000)  Compliance and psychological reactance in schizophrenia, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 287-295


Moritz,S. & Larři, F. (2008) Differences and similarities in the sensory and cognitive signatures of voice-hearing, intrusions and thoughts, Schizophrenia Research, 102: 96–107


Morrison, A.P., Wells, A. & Nothard, S. (2000) Cognitive factors in predisposition to auditory and visual hallucinations, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 67-78


Norris, G. & Laube, R. (2000) Cognitive–behavioural assessment and treatment of maladaptive help-seeking behaviour in a patient with schizophrenia, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry  34,  688–691


Paley, G. & Shapiro, D.A. (2002) Lessons from psychotherapy research for psychological interventions for people with schizophrenia, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 75: 5–17.


Pam, A. (1994) The new schizophrenia: Diagnosis and dynamics of the homeless mentally ill, Journal of Mind and Behaviour, 15, (3), 199-222. 


Penn, D.L., Meyer, P.S., Evans, E.E.,  Wirth, R.J., Cai, K. & Burchinal M. (2009) A randomized controlled trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. enhanced supportive therapy for auditory hallucinations, Schizophrenia Research, 109: 52–59.


Perivoliotis, D. & Cather, C. (2009) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Negative Symptoms, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65: 815–830.


Perivoliotis, D., Grant, P.M. & Beck, A.T. (2009) Advances in Cognitive Therapy for Schizophrenia: Empowerment and Recovery in the Absence of Insight, Clinical Case Studies, 8, (6): 424–437.



Petit-Zeman, S. (2001) Society: Social Care: Soul Friend: Sophie Petit-Zeman on a 'crisis house' for mental health patients that's become a radical alternative to hospital care, The Guardian, 25/10/2001


Randal, P., Simpson, A.I.F. & Laidlaw, T. (2003) Can recovery-focused multimodal psychotherapy facilitate symptom and function improvement in people with treatment-resistant psychotic illness? A comparison study, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37: 720–727


Read, J., Agar, K., Argyle, N. Aderhold, V. (2003) Sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood as predictors of hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 76: 1–22.


Read, J.,  Perry, B.D.,  Moskowitz, B.D. & Connolly, J.  (2001) The Contribution of Early Traumatic Events to Schizophrenia in Some Patients: A Traumagenic Neurodevelopmental Model, Psychiatry, 64, (4):  319-345.


Read, J., van Os, J., Morrison, A.P. & Ross, C.A. (2005) Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications,  Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112: 330–350.


Roberts, D.L. & Penn, D.L. (2009) Social cognition and interaction training (SCIT) for outpatients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study, Psychiatry Research, 166: 141–147


Romme, M. & Escher, S. (1996) Empowering people who hear voices, In Haddock, G & Slade, P.D. (Eds) Cognitive Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, London: Routledge, ps. 137-150.


Rössler, W., Riecher-Rössler, A., Angst, J., Murray, R., Gamma, A., Eich, D., van Os, J. & Gross, V.A. (2009) Psychotic experiences in the general population: A twenty-year prospective community study, Schizophrenia Research 92 (2007) 1–14


Sarbin, T. (1990) Toward the obsolescence of the schizophrenia hypothesis, Journal of Mind and Behaviour, 11, (3 & 4), 259-284.


Sayer, J., Ritter, S. & Gournay, K. (2000) Beliefs about voices and their effects on coping strategies, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, (5), 1199-1205.


Serruya, G. and Grant, P. (2009) Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy of Delusions: Mental Imagery within a Goal-Directed Framework, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, (8): 791-802.


Melo, S.S., Taylor, J.L. and Bentall, R.P. (2006) ‘Poor me’ versus ‘bad me’ paranoia and the instability of persecutory ideation, Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (2006), 79, 271–287


Smith, S.M. and Yanos, P.T. (2009) Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia in an ACT Team Context, Clinical Case Studies, 8, (6): 454–462.


Startup, M. (1999) Schizotypy, dissociative experiences and childhood abuse : Relationships among self-report measures, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 333-344.


Stuttaford, T, (2001) Bike repair aids schizophrenia, The Times, 18/10/2001


Svensson, B., Hansson, L., & Nyman, K. (2000) Stability of outcome in a comprehensive, cognitive therapy based treatment programme for long-term mentally ill patients. A 2-year follow-up study, Journal of Mental Health, 9, 1, 51–61


Tarrier, N., Lewis, S., Haddock, G., Bentall, R., Drake, R., Kinderman, P., Kingdon, D., Siddle, R., Everitt, J., Leadley, K., Benn, A., Grazebrook, K., Haley, C., Akhtar, S., Davies, L., Palmer, S. & Dunn, G. (2004) Cognitive-behavioural therapy in first-episode and early schizophrenia 18-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial, British Journal of Psychiatry, 184: 231-239.


Thompson, J.L., Kelly, M., Kimhy, D., Harkavy-Friedman, J.M., Khan, S., Messinger, J.W., Schobel, S., Goetz, R., Malaspina, D. & Corcoran, C. (2009) Childhood trauma and prodromal symptoms among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis, Schizophrenia Research, 108: 176–181.


Turkington, D. & Kingdon, D. (1996) Using a normalising rationale in the treatment of schizophrenic patients, In Haddock, G & Slade, P.D. (Eds) Cognitive Behavioural Interventions with Psychotic Disorders, London: Routledge, ps. 71-85.


Ucok, A. & Bıkmaz, S. (2009) The effects of childhood trauma in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116: 371–377.


Vaskinn, A., Sundet, K., Hultman, C.M., Friis, S. & Andreassen, O.A. (2009) Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: Specific deficits in sending skills, Psychiatry Research 165: 215–223.


Wahlbeck, K., Osmond, C., Forsen, T., Barker, D.J.P. & Eriksson, J.G. (2001) Associations between childhood living circumstances and schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104: 356–360.


White, L.O. & Mansell, W. (2009) Failing to Ponder? Delusion-Prone Individuals Rush to Conclusions, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 16: 111–124.


Wicks, S., Hjern, A., Gunnell, D., Lewis, G. & Dalman, C. (2005) Social Adversity in Childhood and the Risk of Developing Psychosis: A National Cohort Study, American Journal of Psychiatry, 162: 1652–1657.


Wykes, T. Huddy, V., Cellard, C, McGurk, S.R. & Czobor, P. (2011) A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Remediation for Schizophrenia: Methodology and Effect Sizes, American Journal Of Psychiatry, 168: 472-485.


Wykes, T., Parr, A.M., & Lanfau, S. (1999) Group treatment of auditory hallucinations, British Journal of Psychiatry, 175: 180-185.